The operating principle of inkjet printers is like dot matrix printers because the image on the carrier is formed from the points. But instead of heads with needles in the ink-jet printers it is used a matrix nozzles (the so-called head), printing by liquid dye. The print head can be built into the cartridge with dyes (mainly such approach is used in office printers by companies Hewlett-Packard, Lexmark). In other models of office printers it is used replaceable cartridges, print head, when replacing the cartridge, is not being dismantled. On most commercial printers the ink is fed to the head, laid down in the carriage, through the automatic ink supply.
There are two ways of technical realization of the method of spraying the dye:
Piezoelectric Ink Jet – a piezoelectric crystal is located above the nozzle. When the electric current is applied to the piezo element, it (depending on the type of print head) is bent, extended or pulls the diaphragm as a result it is created a local area of high pressure near the nozzle – a drop is formed, which was subsequently pushed to the material. In some heads the technology allows to resize the drop.
Thermal Ink Jet (also called BubbleJet, the developer – the company Canon, the principle was developed in the late 1970′s) – in the nozzle it is located a microscopic heating element that by passing an electric current instantly heats up to several hundred degrees, when heating in the ink it is formed gas bubbles, which pushed drops of liquid from the nozzle to the media.
Inkjet heads are created using the following types of feed dye:
The Continuous Ink Jet – the feed of dye during the printing takes place continuously, the arrival of the dye to the substrate surface is determined by the modulator dye flow (argues that the patent for this method of printing was issued to William Thompson in 1867). In the technical implementation of such a print head in nozzle under pressure it is applied a dye, which it is split into a sequence of micro-droplets (volume of several tens of picoliters), to which an electrical charge is additionally reported. Partition of the flow of dye into droplets is done by the piezoelectric crystal located on the nozzle, which is formed by an acoustic wave (frequency in the tens of kilohertz). Deviation of the stream of droplets is done by an electrostatic deflection system (deflector). Those drops of dye that should not get on the printed surface are collected in the collection of dye and, as a rule, are sent back to the main tank with dye. The first inkjet printer, manufactured with the use of this method of feeding the dye, was released by Siemens in 1951.
Feeding on demand – the feed of the dye from the nozzle of the print head occurs only when the dye should really put on the proper nozzle area of printed surface. It is this way of feeding the dye is the most widespread in today’s inkjet printers.
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