Surrogate mothers have their genetic material. A baby is genetically linked to the surrogate mother and the intended parents. DNA is a two-strand molecule that contains the traits a person inherits from their parents. DNA carries the DNA from both the egg donor and the sperm donor. The surrogate baby has the mother’s DNA, but not the other way around.
DNA is found in saliva and sperm. However, donating blood or kissing someone will not make them related. There is no way to make a surrogate baby look like the mother’s DNA. In short, the surrogate baby will look like an egg donor or sperm donor.
Surrogacy is very different from traditional conception. While conventional surrogacy uses the intended parents’ egg, gestational surrogacy does not. In gestational surrogacy, sperm and egg are transferred to the surrogate mother’s uterus. The baby is genetically related to the donor’s parents but not to the surrogate mother.
In a healthy child, both parents will have DNA. Interestingly, the surrogate baby’s DNA will mix with the trillions of cells of the biological parents, but this won’t significantly affect the baby’s DNA. The placenta acts as a filter, but this doesn’t mean that the surrogate mother’s DNA will make any difference to the child.
Gestational surrogacy is the most common type of surrogacy. The intended parents use sperm and egg from the intended parent and an egg from the surrogate mother to conceive the baby. The resulting embryo is then implanted into the surrogate mother’s uterus.
A gestational surrogate mother does not have legal parental rights. The intended parents whose DNA is implanted in the surrogate mother will have legal parental rights to the child. However, the gestational carrier knows she does not have parental rights. The legal parentage is established through multiple legal processes.
Surrogate babies also share their blood and bodily fluids in the womb. Unlike biological mothers, the surrogate mother’s blood type does not influence the baby’s genetic makeup. However, the surrogate mother’s blood type may not match the baby’s blood type.
While the American Society for Reproductive Medicine recommends that surrogate mothers have a comprehensive medical examination before the procedure, it does not guarantee that the child will have the mother’s DNA. A surrogate mother should undergo regular physical exams and vaccinations, ensuring that she is healthy and free of infectious diseases. She should also undergo a visual mapping of her uterus and be seen by her doctor during the pregnancy.
Although the DNA of a surrogate baby does not contain the mother’s DNA, it does carry the mother’s genes. It is believed that the cells carried by the gestational carrier pass into the child in about 40% of pregnancies. This is not enough to affect the genetic makeup of the child.